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What is Dynamic Binding in Java? (Explained with Examples)

Published: 22nd May, 2024

Tapash Kumar Mahato

Web Development Consultant at almaBetter

Simplify code, boost productivity, and improve readability by leveraging dynamic binding in Java to handle polymorphism and enhance method overriding cleanly.

Before diving into static and dynamic binding, it's essential to understand the concept of binding in Java. Binding refers to the process of linking a method call to its corresponding method implementation. It determines which method implementation is invoked when a method is called. Binding can occur either at runtime or at compile time.

Binding is closely related to polymorphism in Java, which is the ability of objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass. Polymorphism is achieved through inheritance and method overriding, allowing a subclass to provide a specific implementation of a method already defined in its superclass. Whether binding is static or dynamic depends on the type of reference variable used to invoke the method.

Types of Binding in Java : In Java, there are two main types of binding:

  • Static Binding: Occurs at compile time.
  • Dynamic Binding: Occurs at runtime.

In this article, we will be talking about Dynamic Binding in Java.

What is Dynamic Binding in Java?

Static binding, also referred to as early binding, resolves method calls at compile time. This means that the method to be executed is determined during compilation based on the type of the reference variable, rather than the object it points to. It is typically used when the method is defined in the class and there is no method overriding in the subclass. Static binding ensures efficiency in method invocation by resolving calls upfront, aiding in compiler optimizations.

On the contrary, dynamic binding, known as late binding, is a core concept in object-oriented programming, especially in languages like Java. It involves resolving method calls and variable references during runtime rather than compile time. Dynamic binding is pivotal for enabling polymorphism, allowing objects of different classes to be treated uniformly as objects of a common superclass. This flexibility facilitates extensible and maintainable code, enabling seamless addition of new subclasses without modifying existing code that employs superclass references.

Basics of Binding in Java

Binding in Java can be categorised into two types:

Static Binding (Early Binding):

  • Occurs at compile time.
  • The method call is resolved by the compiler.
  • Typically used for private, static, and final methods which cannot be overridden.
  • Example:

Dynamic Binding (Late Binding):

  • Occurs at runtime.
  • The method call is resolved by the JVM based on the object type.
  • Used for overridden methods.
  • Example:

This dynamic binding in Java example illustrates how the `sound` method in the `Dog` class overrides the `sound` method in the `Animal` class, and the actual method called is determined at runtime based on the object type.

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How Dynamic Binding Works

Dynamic binding, a key feature of object-oriented languages like Java, operates by determining the actual method to execute during runtime, contingent upon the object referenced by the variable. This mechanism relies on virtual method tables (vtables) for instance methods. When a method call is made on an object, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) consults the object's class's vtable to identify and execute the corresponding method implementation. This dynamic lookup enables polymorphism, allowing for the uniform treatment of objects of different classes through superclass references, enhancing code flexibility and maintainability.

Key Points about Dynamic Binding

Polymorphism: Dynamic binding facilitates polymorphism, where methods can exhibit different behaviors based on the specific object invoking them. This allows for the creation of more adaptable and modular code, as a single method name can be utilized across various classes, each providing its unique implementation.

Method Overriding: Dynamic binding is essential for method overriding, a fundamental principle in object-oriented design. It enables subclasses to redefine methods inherited from their superclasses, allowing for the creation of specialized behaviors tailored to individual subclasses. This hierarchical structure promotes code reuse and maintainability by refining or extending the functionality of parent classes.

Flexibility: Dynamic binding enhances code flexibility and reusability by allowing for late method resolution, determined at runtime based on the object's actual type. This flexibility simplifies the addition of new functionality and the modification of existing behavior without necessitating changes to the code that uses superclass references.

Efficiency: Despite incurring a minor performance overhead due to the method lookup process at runtime, dynamic binding significantly improves the design and architecture of object-oriented applications. The benefits in terms of design clarity and adaptability outweigh this cost, leading to more efficient and maintainable codebases.

Advantages of Dynamic Binding

Improves Code Maintainability: Dynamic binding facilitates method overriding, which allows subclasses to provide their implementations of methods defined in superclasses. This feature simplifies code management and updates by enabling modifications to specific behaviors without altering the existing code structure. As a result, maintenance becomes more straightforward, reducing the risk of introducing errors during code changes.

Supports Inheritance and Polymorphism: Dynamic binding plays a crucial role in supporting inheritance and polymorphism in object-oriented programming. By allowing methods to be overridden and invoked dynamically based on the actual object type at runtime, it promotes the creation of more general and reusable code. This capability enables the construction of class hierarchies where subclasses can extend or specialize the behavior of their parent classes, enhancing code modularity and scalability.

Enhances Flexibility: Dynamic binding enhances code flexibility by enabling methods to be overridden and invoked dynamically, adapting to the specific object type at runtime. This flexibility allows for the creation of more adaptable and robust software systems, where the behavior of methods can vary depending on the context in which they are invoked. Consequently, dynamic binding facilitates the development of applications that can evolve and respond to changing requirements with minimal effort.

Read our latest blogs “Advantages and Disadvantages of Java” and “Features of Java


To define dynamic binding in Java, it is the process where method calls are resolved at runtime rather than at compile time, enabling polymorphism and dynamic method invocation. Through the Java dynamic binding mechanism, developers can write more flexible and maintainable code, leveraging the principles of object-oriented programming. The dynamic binding in Java with examples provided above demonstrates how overridden methods are determined at runtime, showcasing the power and necessity of this concept in Java applications.

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