Data Science

The Four Pillars of OOPs (Object Oriented Programming)

Published: 27th September, 2023

Gurneet Kaur

Data Science Consultant at almaBetter

Unlock the secrets of OOPS. Learn core principles that power modern software development and level up coding skills. Dive into the Four Pillars of Oops today!

Welcome to the world of coding excellence! Have you ever wondered what makes modern software genuinely remarkable? It's the secret sauce known as Object-Oriented Programming, or simply OOP. In this journey through the 4 Pillars of Oops, we'll unlock the coding wonders that form the backbone of OOP.

At its core, Object-Oriented Programming is a revolutionary approach to writing code. It breaks down complex software into manageable, reusable building blocks. Now, imagine constructing a digital world just like building with LEGO bricks – each piece serves a unique purpose yet seamlessly fits into the grand design.

Our adventure will take us through the four main pillars of OOP: Encapsulation, Inheritance and Polymorphism, and Abstraction. But this won't be a dry theoretical exercise. We'll embark on a journey filled with real-life examples that clarify these concepts.

So, if you've ever asked, What are the Four Pillars of Oops? or wondered how they apply to the real world, you're in the right place. Let's dive in, and you'll soon discover that mastering OOP's foundation is the key to coding brilliance!

Understanding Object-Oriented Programming

Picture coding as crafting a symphony – intricate, harmonious, and ever-evolving. Now, meet the conductor of this digital orchestra: Object-Oriented Programming, or OOP. It's not just a buzzword; it's the foundation upon which the modern software world is built.

What is OOP?

At its essence, OOP is a paradigm that transforms code into organized, reusable, and efficient modules. Think of it as a library stocked with pre-designed, versatile tools. These tools, called "objects," carry data and methods to manipulate that data. Imagine a car object: it holds information like speed and fuel and can perform actions like accelerating or braking.

Why Does OOP Matter?

OOP isn't just another coding approach; it's a game-changer. Here's why it matters:

  1. Modularity: OOP divides complex systems into manageable chunks (objects), making development more structured and teamwork-friendly.
  2. Reusability: Objects can be reused across projects, saving time and effort, like having a toolbox that works for various DIY projects.
  3. Flexibility: OOP accommodates changes and updates smoothly. Alter an object's behavior without affecting the entire codebase.
  4. Readability: Code written in OOP is like a well-organized novel. It's easier to understand, maintain, and debug.
  5. Real-World Application: From video games to e-commerce platforms, OOP is everywhere. For instance, an e-commerce system may use "product" objects to manage inventory and customer shopping carts.

OOP transforms code from a jumbled mess into a symphony of logic and structure. And to truly appreciate OOP's brilliance, we must explore its Four Pillars, the cornerstones of this coding masterpiece. But first, let's dive deeper into these pillars to grasp their significance.

Exploring the Four Pillars of Oops: Delving into the 4 Main Pillars

What are four pillars of OOPS? Imagine a grand architectural masterpiece—your software project. Now, consider the four pillars that uphold its grandeur. These are the Four Pillars of Object Oriented Programming. As we venture deeper into this coding cathedral, we'll uncover its profound significance. Let’s explain four pillars of OOPS:

What Are the Four Pillars of Oops?

  1. Encapsulation: This pillar encapsulates data within objects, safeguarding it from unauthorized access. It's like a treasure chest with a lock, only accessible by the right key.
  2. Inheritance: In object-oriented programming, Inheritance enables a class to inherit the attributes and behaviors of another class. This way, the new class can reuse the code of the parent class and add or modify its properties and methods. It's like passing down traits in a family that can be altered or extended in a new generation.
  3. Polymorphism: Objects of different types can be treated as instances of a common superclass. For example, various vehicles can be treated as vehicles and driven using the same "drive" command.
  4. Abstraction: Abstraction simplifies complexity by providing a high-level view of an object. Think of it as a car dashboard; you don't need to know the inner workings to drive.

Why Do These Pillars Matter?

  • Modularity: Each pillar promotes modular code, making it easier to manage, understand, and maintain.
  • Reusability: By embracing these pillars, you can reuse and extend code components, saving precious time.
  • Scalability: Thanks to these principles, your software can grow without becoming a tangled mess.
  • Real-World Examples: Consider a banking system. Encapsulation secures customer data, Inheritance handles different account types, Polymorphism enables transactions, and Abstraction simplifies user interactions.

The Four Main Pillars of Oops aren't just coding concepts; they're the essence of efficient, flexible, and powerful software design. Let's journey through each pillar to unlock their secrets and reveal their real-world magic and find answer to the question that arises in the mind i.e. What are the four pillars of OOPS concepts?

Encapsulation: The First Pillar

Encapsulation is an impenetrable fortress that shields your data from unauthorized access, making it the foundational pillar of Oops. Only the rightful owner can unlock the treasure chest of data that lies within.

What Is Encapsulation?

Encapsulation bundles data (attributes) and the methods (functions) that operate on it into a class unit. This class acts like a fortress, guarding its inner workings from external meddling. You can't access or modify the treasure inside without the right keys, which are the class's methods.

Why Is Encapsulation Important?

  1. Data Security: Encapsulation keeps sensitive data safe from unauthorized access. For instance, the password attribute is encapsulated in a user class, preventing direct access.
  2. Modularity: It promotes modular code, making it easy to maintain and understand. Changes to the internal structure don't ripple across the entire codebase.

Real-Life Examples of Encapsulation

  1. Banking System: In a banking system, customer account details like balance and account number are encapsulated within a class. External access to these attributes is limited to specific methods, ensuring data integrity.
  2. Smartphone: Smartphone manufacturers encapsulate the hardware components (e.g., camera, screen) within classes. The user interacts with these components through well-defined methods (e.g., taking a photo).

Encapsulation is the foundation of data protection and code organization. It ensures your code is like a vault, keeping its secrets hidden while offering controlled access to its treasures. This is just the beginning; there's more to uncover as we journey through the 4 Pillars of Oops.

Inheritance: The Second Pillar

Think of Inheritance as a family tree for your code, where traits and properties are passed down from generation to generation. It's the second pillar of Oops, and it's all about building upon what already exists.

What Is Inheritance?

Inheritance is a fundamental concept in OOPS, i.e., object-oriented programming that allows a subclass to inherit properties and methods from a superclass without re-implementing them. Think of it as a child inheriting genetic traits and skills from their parents.

How Inheritance Simplifies Code

  1. Code Reusability: You don't have to reinvent the wheel. If you have a class for "Vehicle," you can create subclasses like "Car" and "Bicycle" that inherit the standard features like "move" and "stop." There is no need to rewrite these functions for each type of vehicle.
  2. Modularity: Inheritance promotes a modular approach. Changes or updates to the base class automatically apply to all its subclasses. For example, enhancing the "Vehicle" class with a "fuelEfficiency" attribute will benefit all its subclasses.

Real-life examples of Inheritance

  1. Animal Kingdom: In a virtual zoo application, you might have a base class "Animal." From there, you can create subclasses like "Mammal," "Bird," and "Reptile," each inheriting common traits like "eat" and "sleep."
  2. Software Interfaces: In Java, interfaces enable multiple classes to inherit common methods, ensuring a consistent interaction with different objects. For example, the "Serializable" interface allows various classes to be serialized for storage or transmission.

Inheritance simplifies code by fostering a hierarchical structure, making it easier to manage and extend. It's like building with LEGO, where each piece fits perfectly, allowing you to create complex structures without starting from scratch. With Inheritance, you're on your way to mastering the 4 Pillars of Oops.

Polymorphism: The Third Pillar

Polymorphism is like the chameleon of coding—it adapts to its environment. It's the third pillar of Oops, and it's all about the power of versatility.

What Is Polymorphism?

Polymorphism is a powerful tool that enables objects of various classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass. This feature allows for the assumption of multiple forms, making it an invaluable asset in software development.

Real-World Applications of Polymorphism

  1. Shapes in Graphics: Consider graphics software. You have shapes like circles, squares, and triangles, each with a "draw" method. Polymorphism allows you to treat all these shapes uniformly, simplifying code. When you call "draw" in any form, it behaves according to its specific class.
  2. Payment Methods: In an e-commerce system, you may have multiple payment methods like credit cards, PayPal, and bank transfers. Each method has a "processPayment" function. Polymorphism enables you to use a generic "processPayment" function that adapts to the chosen payment method at runtime.
  3. Animal Sounds: In a virtual pet game, you can have a variety of animals—dogs, cats, and birds. Each animal makes a sound when you interact with it. Polymorphism lets you call a "makeSound" function on any animal object, producing the appropriate sound based on the animal's class.

Polymorphism simplifies code by allowing you to work with objects at a higher level of abstraction, regardless of their specific type. It's like speaking a universal language that all things understand, making your code more flexible and adaptable. With Polymorphism, you're one step closer to mastering the 4 Pillars of Oops.

Abstraction: The Fourth Pillar

Imagine reading a book with a summary on the back cover—it gives you a high-level understanding without diving into every detail. Abstraction is like that summary, distilling complex code into manageable concepts. It's the fourth pillar of Oops, all about clarity and simplicity.

What Is Abstraction?

Abstraction focuses on simplifying complex reality by modeling classes based on real-world objects. It hides the unnecessary details and exposes only the relevant aspects. Think of it as using a TV remote—you don't need to know the internal circuitry to change channels.

How Abstraction Enhances Code Readability

  1. Focus on Essentials: Abstraction lets you concentrate on the core functionality of a class without being distracted by implementation details. For instance, in a car class, you're concerned with "start" and "stop" methods, not the intricacies of the engine.
  2. User-Friendly: It makes code more user-friendly. Other developers can understand and use your classes without comprehending every intricate detail. It's like driving a car without needing to be an automotive engineer.

Real-Life Examples of Abstraction

  1. Smartphones: Smartphone users interact with a high-level interface, like tapping icons on the screen. The inner workings of the OS, hardware, and software are abstracted, offering a user-friendly experience.
  2. Online Shopping: When you add items to your cart and click "checkout," you interact with an abstracted system. It simplifies the shopping process without revealing the complexities of inventory management, payment processing, and shipping logistics.

Abstraction enhances code readability by offering a clear and simplified view of complex systems. It's like having a roadmap that effortlessly guides you through intricate terrain. With Abstraction, you're fully equipped to master the Four Pillars of Oops and unlock the true potential of Object-Oriented Programming.

Putting It All Together: Real-Life Examples

The magic of the 4 Pillars of Oops isn't theoretical—it's tangible, like the gears of a well-oiled machine. Let's see these principles come alive with four pillars of OOPS with real life example and discover the incredible benefits they bring to the world of coding.

1. Encapsulation in Action

Consider an e-commerce platform. Each customer's data, like name, address, and payment info, is encapsulated within a "Customer" class. Encapsulation safeguards this sensitive data, ensuring privacy and security.

2. Inheritance Unleashed

In the world of gaming, inheritance is a hero. Think of a game where you have different characters like warriors, archers, and mages. They all inherit common attributes and methods from a "Character" class. This saves time and ensures consistent behavior across characters.

3. Polymorphism in the Spotlight

Imagine a drawing application. You can draw shapes—circles, rectangles, and triangles. Polymorphism lets you use a single "draw" function for all shapes, making the code elegant and extensible.

4. Abstraction for Clarity

In a music player, abstraction reigns. You press play, pause, or skip without worrying about how the audio decoder or file management works behind the scenes. Abstraction simplifies the user experience.

Benefits of Applying OOP Principles

  • Modularity: OOP breaks complex systems into manageable chunks, promoting team collaboration and efficient code management.
  • Reusability: Code components are reusable across projects, saving time and effort.
  • Flexibility: OOP adapts to changes seamlessly. Modify one part without affecting the entire codebase.
  • Readability: Code written in OOP is like a well-structured story, making it easier to understand, maintain, and debug.

The Four Pillars of Oops are not just concepts but the architects of modern software development. By applying these principles, you're not just writing code but crafting elegant solutions to real-world challenges. Welcome to the world of coding brilliance, where the Four Pillars of Oops are your guiding stars.


Congratulations! You've embarked on a journey into the heart of modern software development, unraveling the secrets of the Four Pillars of Oops. It's not just about coding; it's about crafting digital symphonies and architecting solutions to complex real-world problems.

As you've discovered, Object-Oriented Programming is more than a coding style; it's a mindset that empowers you to create robust, flexible, and elegant software. Let's recap the wisdom you've gained:

  1. Encapsulation: Protect your data like a vault, allowing controlled access for maximum security.
  2. Inheritance: Build on existing foundations, reusing and extending code effortlessly.
  3. Polymorphism: Embrace versatility, making your code adaptable and user-friendly.
  4. Abstraction: Simplify complexity, providing a clear, high-level view of your code.

By mastering these pillars, you're equipped to:

  • Craft Modular Solutions: Divide and conquer complex problems efficiently, fostering teamwork and efficient code management.
  • Save Time: Reuse code components across projects, accelerating development.
  • Embrace Change: Adapt to evolving requirements without the headache of extensive code overhauls.
  • Enhance Readability: Write code that reads like a well-structured story, making it understandable, maintainable, and debuggable.

Now, go forth and apply these principles to your coding endeavors. Whether building a cutting-edge app, revolutionizing an industry or making life more convenient, the Four Pillars of Oops are your guiding lights. Your journey to coding excellence has just begun, and the world of possibilities awaits your command.

Frequently asked Questions

What is the first pillar of OOP?

The first pillar of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is Encapsulation. It involves bundling data and methods that operate on that data into a single unit called a class, protecting data from unauthorized access and manipulation.

What is the most important pillar of OOP?

It's subjective to determine the most important pillar, as all four (Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism, and Abstraction) are crucial for effective OOP. However, Encapsulation is often considered fundamental, as it ensures data security and forms the basis for the other pillars.

What is Inheritance in OOP?

Inheritance is a pillar of OOP that allows a new class (subclass) to inherit properties and methods from an existing class (superclass). It promotes code reusability by creating a hierarchical structure of classes, where attributes and behaviors are shared and extended.

How does Polymorphism enhance code flexibility in OOP?

Polymorphism enables objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass. This flexibility simplifies code, making it adaptable to varying situations. It allows for the creation of more versatile and user-friendly software.

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