web scraping using python

Data Science

An Introduction To Web Scraping Using Python Programming


Mahima Phalkey

Data Science Consultant at almaBetter

people5 mins


Published on07 Jun, 2023

Web scraping is the process to extract data from websites using automated tools or software. It involves using a program to crawl through web pages, extract the relevant data, and save it in a structured format. The data can then be used for different purposes, such as market research, competitor analysis, etc.

Web scraping tools can range from simple browser extensions to complex software that can handle large-scale data extraction. Some popular web scraping tools include BeautifulSoup, Scrapy, and Selenium.

Webscraping using Python

Webscraping using Python

Why is Web Scraping Important?

Web scraping is important because it provides businesses and individuals with access to data that would otherwise be difficult to obtain. When we automate the data collection process, web scraping allows users to quickly and efficiently collect large amounts of data from multiple sources.

This data can be used to inform business decisions, such as identifying market trends or analyzing competitor performance. It can also be used for research purposes, such as analyzing social media sentiment or tracking news coverage.

Web scraping has become a vital tool for businesses and researchers who rely on data to make informed decisions. With web scraping, companies can collect data on their competitors, monitor customer sentiment, and track changes in the market. Researchers can use web scraping to analyze social media trends, track disease outbreaks, and study public opinion on various topics.

Legal and Ethical Considerations in Web Scraping

  • Web scraping can raise legal and ethical concerns, especially when it involves accessing private or copyrighted information.
  • Website owners may view web scraping as a form of intellectual property theft and take legal action to protect their data.
  • It is important to know the legal implications of web scraping and ensure that the data being collected is obtained ethically and legally.

Understanding the Legal Implications of Web Scraping

  • The legality of web scraping varies depending on the jurisdiction and the type of data being collected.
  • In some cases, web scraping may violate copyright laws, data protection laws, or anti-spam regulations.
  • It is important to obtain legal advice and permission from website owners before scraping their data.

Ethical Concerns in Web Scraping

  • Web scraping can also raise ethical concerns, especially when it involves collecting personal information or invading people's privacy.
  • It is important to respect individuals' privacy and ensure that the data being collected is used for legitimate purposes.
  • Ethical web scraping involves obtaining consent from website owners and users, using the data responsibly, and protecting individuals' privacy.

Libraries used for Web Scraping using Python code

Libraries used for web scraping-

There are several libraries available in Python for web scraping. Some popular examples include:

  1. Beautiful Soup: Beautiful Soup is a Python library for getting data out of HTML and XML files. It creates a parse tree from page source code that can be used for extracting data in a hierarchical and more readable manner.

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
import requests

url = "<>"
r = requests.get(url)

soup = BeautifulSoup(r.content)

2. Scrapy: Scrapy is a Python framework for web scraping that gives a simple and efficient way to extract data from websites. It has built-in support for handling common web scraping tasks such as handling cookies, following links, and submitting forms.

import scrapy

class QuotesSpider(scrapy.Spider):
    name = "quotes"
    start_urls = [

    def parse(self, response):
        for quote in response.css('div.quote'):
            yield {
                'text': quote.css('span.text::text').get(),
                'author': quote.css('span small::text').get(),
                'tags': quote.css('div.tags a.tag::text').getall(),

        next_page = response.css(' a::attr(href)').get()
        if next_page is not None:
            yield response.follow(next_page, self.parse)

3. Selenium: Selenium is a Python library that allows you to automate browser actions, such as clicking links, filling out forms, and scrolling pages. It can be used to scrape data from websites that require user interaction, such as those that use JavaScript to render content.


from selenium import webdriver

url = "<>"
driver = webdriver.Chrome()

content = driver.page_source


4. Requests-HTML: Requests-HTML is a Python library that is built on top of the requests library and provides additional features for parsing HTML content, including support for JavaScript rendering.


from requests_html import HTMLSession

url = "<>"
session = HTMLSession()
r = session.get(url)

content = r.html.html

Best practices for web scraping

When performing web scraping, it's important to follow some best practices to ensure that you are conducting your scraping ethically and efficiently. Here are some of the important best practices to keep in mind:

  1. Respect website terms of service: Before scraping a website, make sure to review its terms of service to ensure that you are not violating any rules or regulations. Some websites may prohibit scraping or may require you to obtain permission before doing so.
  2. Don't overload the website: To avoid overwhelming a website's servers, it's important to limit the frequency and intensity of your scraping requests. This can be done by adding delays between requests, limiting the number of requests per minute, or using a proxy server to spread out the requests.
  3. Use appropriate headers: When sending requests to a website, make sure to include appropriate headers to identify your scraping tool and purpose. This can help prevent your requests from being blocked or flagged as suspicious.
  4. Handle errors gracefully: Since web scraping is an imperfect process, it's important to handle errors gracefully and make sure your scraping tool doesn't crash or cause other issues. This can be done by adding an error-handling code to your program and testing it thoroughly before running it at scale.
  5. Keep your code clean: Writing clean, readable code is important for maintaining your scraping tool and ensuring it continues to function properly. This can be done by using consistent formatting, adding comments to explain your code, and following best practices for coding style and structure.


Web scraping can be a powerful tool when it comes to collecting data and insights from websites. By following best practices and using correct tools and techniques, businesses and individuals can use web scraping to inform their decision-making and gain a competitive edge. However, it's important to conduct your scraping ethically and responsibly and always to follow the terms of service of the websites while you are doing web scraping.

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