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Hypothesis testing is a statistical method that is used to determine whether there is enough evidence to support or reject a claim about a population based on sample data. It is a formal process that involves setting up two competing hypotheses, the null hypothesis (H0) and the alternative hypothesis (Ha), and using sample data to determine which hypothesis is more likely to be true.

The null hypothesis is the hypothesis of no difference or no effect. It assumes that there is no relationship between the variables being tested, or that any observed difference is due to chance. The alternative hypothesis, on the other hand, is the hypothesis of a difference or an effect. It assumes that there is a relationship between the variables being tested, or that any observed difference is not due to chance.

The process of hypothesis testing involves several steps:

- Formulate the null and alternative hypotheses.
- Set the level of significance, also known as alpha (α), which is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true. Common values for alpha are 0.05 or 0.01.
- Collect sample data and calculate the test statistic, which is a measure of how much the sample data deviates from the null hypothesis.
- Determine the critical value or p-value based on the test statistic and the level of significance.
- Compare the critical value or p-value to the level of significance. If the critical value is less than the level of significance or the p-value is less than alpha, then the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. Otherwise, the null hypothesis is not rejected.

Process of Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is widely used in many fields, including science, engineering, economics, and social sciences, to test the validity of claims and make decisions based on data. It is important to remember that hypothesis testing does not prove anything definitively, but rather provides evidence to support or reject a claim based on the available data.

There are several types of hypothesis tests, but the most common ones are:

**One-sample test:**This type of test is used to compare the mean of a sample to a known or hypothesized value. For example, if we want to know if the average height of a sample of people is significantly different from a certain value, we can use a one-sample test.**Two-sample test:**This type of test is used to compare the means of two different samples. For example, if we want to know if there is a significant difference in the average income of men and women, we can use a two-sample test.**Paired-sample test:**This type of test is used when we have two samples that are paired, such as a before-and-after comparison. For example, if we want to know if a new drug has a significant effect on blood pressure, we can use a paired-sample test to compare the blood pressure readings before and after taking the drug.**Goodness-of-fit test:**This type of test is used to determine if a sample comes from a specific distribution. For example, if we want to know if a set of data follows a normal distribution, we can use a goodness-of-fit test.**Independence test:**This type of test is used to determine if two categorical variables are independent of each other. For example, if we want to know if there is a relationship between smoking and lung cancer, we can use an independence test.**ANOVA:**ANOVA stands for analysis of variance and is used to test for differences in means between three or more groups. For example, if we want to know if there is a significant difference in the average weight of people from three different countries, we can use an ANOVA test.

These are just a few examples of the many types of hypothesis tests that are available. The choice of test depends on the nature of the research question and the type of data being analyzed. In this lesson we will see One sample test, Two sample test and ANOVA.

Hypothesis testing is a powerful statistical tool that allows researchers to make inferences about populations based on sample data. It involves setting up two competing hypotheses, the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis, and using sample data to determine which hypothesis is more likely to be true.

- Hypothesis testing is a powerful statistical tool used to test the validity of claims and make decisions based on data.
- Hypothesis testing is widely used in various fields, including science, engineering, economics, and social sciences, to test the validity of claims and make decisions based on data.
- Different types of hypothesis tests, such as one-sample, two-sample, paired-sample, goodness-of-fit, independence, and ANOVA, are available to analyze different types of data and research questions.
- It is important to remember that hypothesis testing does not prove anything definitively but rather provides evidence to support or reject a claim based on the available data.
- It involves formulating null and alternative hypotheses, setting a level of significance, collecting sample data, calculating a test statistic, and comparing the critical value or p-value to the level of significance.
- There are many types of hypothesis tests, including one-sample tests, two-sample tests, paired-sample tests, goodness-of-fit tests, independence tests, and ANOVA tests.
- The choice of test depends on the research question and the type of data being analyzed.
- While hypothesis testing does not prove anything definitively, it provides evidence to support or reject a claim based on the available data.

Module 7: Hypothesis Testing

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