Module - 1 Getting Started with Machine Learning

Lesson - 2 Types of Machine Learning Model

**Overview**

A machine learning model is a mathematical representation of the result of a training process. It employs algorithms that are able to learn and make strides consequently based on past encounters and information. This sort of software is outlined to detect patterns or behaviors from the information it is given. The learning algorithm filters through the information it is given to find patterns, and from this it produces an ML model which can make predictions based on the designs it has found.

**Types of Machine Learning Models**

Depending on the data set and desired output, algorithms can be placed into different types of ML models. There are three main types of machine learning models as follows:

**Supervised Learning:**- Classification
- Regression

**Unsupervised Learning:**- Clustering
- Association rule
- Dimensionality reduction

**Reinforcement Learning**

**Supervised Machine Learning Models**

Supervised machine learning models are algorithms used to predict a target variable from a set of input variables. These models use labeled data consisting of examples of input-output pairs to learn the mapping from input to output. Examples of supervised machine learning models include linear regression, logistic regression, support vector machines, decision trees, random forests, and neural networks.

**Regression**

Regression is a statistical method used to model the relationship between a dependent variable (also called the response variable) and one or more independent variables (also called the predictor or explanatory variables). The goal of regression is to find the best-fitting line or curve that describes the relationship between the variables.

**Classification**

In machine learning, classification is the process of predicting the class of given data points. It can be used for both supervised learning and unsupervised learning. Classification algorithms are used in a wide variety of applications, such as detecting medical conditions, recognizing faces in images, and classifying emails as spam or not spam.

**Unsupervised Machine learning models**

Unsupervised machine learning models are used to infer patterns from data without relying on labeled data. These models are used to identify patterns in data that are not necessarily labeled. Examples of unsupervised machine learning models include clustering algorithms such as k-means, hierarchical clustering, and density-based clustering; dimensionality reduction techniques such as principal component analysis; and anomaly detection algorithms such as one-class support vector machines and anomaly detection techniques.

Three tasks which the Unsupervised learning models are mainly used are as follows:

**Clustering:**Clustering is an unsupervised learning method that groups data into clusters based on similarity and distance measures. It is used to find patterns and group similar data points together.**Association Rule Mining:**Association rule mining is an unsupervised learning technique that identifies relationships between variables in a dataset. It is used to identify associations or correlations among variables in a large dataset.**Dimensionality Reduction:**Dimensionality reduction is an unsupervised learning technique that reduces the number of features in a dataset while preserving the important information. It is used to reduce the complexity of a dataset and make it easier to interpret and analyze.

**Reinforcement Learning**

Reinforcement Learning is an area of Machine Learning that focuses on how software agents should act in an environment so as to maximize some notion of cumulative reward. It is based on the idea of learning from rewards and punishments, and from mistakes made by the agent. A reinforcement learning agent learns from its environment by interacting with it and adjusting its behavior to maximize its performance. The agent can perform actions and observe the rewards and punishments that follow. Over time, the agent learns which actions yield the most reward and can modify its behavior accordingly. The goal of reinforcement learning is to find a policy that maximizes the expected cumulative reward over a given period of time.

**Applications of Different ML models:**

**Regression**:- Real Estate Prediction
- Weather Forecasting
- Financial Portfolio Prediction
- ETA

**Classification**:- Credit card Fraud Detection
- Image Classification
- Spam Detection
- Insurance Decisioning

**Clustering**:- Document theme extraction
- Customer Segmentation
- Insurance Fraud Detection
- Delivery Store Optimization

**Reinforcement**:- Traffic Light control
- Resource Management
- Robotics
- Games
- Bidding and Advertisement

**Difference between Machine learning model and Algorithms**

Learning Model | Algorithm |
---|---|

Learns from data | Follows instructions |

Automates decision making | Solves a problem |

Learns from experience | Uses well-defined procedures |

Self-improves over time | Provides a solution to a problem |

Predicts outcomes | Executes a specific set of instructions |

**Conclusion**

Machine Learning Model is a computer program that empowers a framework to learn from information, identify patterns, and make choices with minimal human intervention. By leveraging existing information and algorithms, machine learning models can foresee results, recommend products, and give mechanized insights. By utilizing supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning procedures, it can produce precise and solid analytics. This innovation has been utilized in an assortment of businesses, such as healthcare, fund, and retail, to move forward business processes and optimize client encounters. From recognizing fraud to personalized proposals, Machine Learning Model is revolutionizing the way organizations make choices and interact with their clients.

**Key takeaways**

**Supervised Learning:**

- Focus on making predictions based on labeled data
- Use algorithms such as decision trees, support vector machines, and neural networks
- Useful for applications such as classification and regression

**Unsupervised Learning:**

- Focus on discovering hidden patterns in unlabeled data
- Use algorithms such as clustering and association rule mining
- Useful for applications such as data segmentation and anomaly detection

**Reinforcement Learning:**

- Focus on maximizing reward from a given environment
- Use algorithms such as Q-learning, SARSA, and Deep Q-networks
- Useful for applications such as game playing and robotics

**Quiz**

**Which type of ML model is used to identify patterns and relationships in data?**- Regression
- Classification
- Clustering
- All of the Above

**Answer**:d. All of the Above

**What type of ML model can be used to identify an outcome based on a set of numerical inputs?**- Regression
- Classification
- Clustering
- Decision Tree

**Answer**: a. Regression

**Which type of ML model is used to group data points based on similarities?**- Regression
- Classification
- Clustering
- Decision Tree

**Answer**:c. Clustering

**What type of ML model can be used to identify an outcome based on a set of inputs, using a decision tree structure?**- Regression
- Classification
- Clustering
- Decision Tree

**Answer**:d. Decision Tree

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