Node JS Modules


Core modules, also known as built-in modules, are an integral part of the Node.js platform. They provide essential functionality for a wide range of applications and are available out-of-the-box, without the need to install any external packages. Node.js offers a plethora of core modules, each tailored to fulfill specific needs. Let's dive in and explore some of the most common and widely used core modules in Node.js.

fs (File System)

The fs module is your trusty companion when it comes to interacting with the file system. The fs module, short for "File System," is a built-in core module in Node.js that provides a comprehensive set of tools for interacting with the file system. It provides an arsenal of functions to create, read, update, and delete files and directories. From reading the contents of a file to creating new directories, the fs module has got you covered. The fs module includes both synchronous and asynchronous methods, giving developers the flexibility to choose the appropriate method based on the requirements of their application. Say goodbye to cumbersome file handling, and let the fs module do the heavy lifting for you!

Some common operations provided by the fs module include:

  1. Reading files: fs.readFile(), fs.readFileSync()
  2. Writing files: fs.writeFile(), fs.writeFileSync()
  3. Appending data to files: fs.appendFile(), fs.appendFileSync()
  4. Deleting files: fs.unlink(), fs.unlinkSync()
  5. Creating directories: fs.mkdir(), fs.mkdirSync()
  6. Removing directories: fs.rmdir(), fs.rmdirSync()
  7. Reading directories: fs.readdir(), fs.readdirSync()
  8. Checking file and directory stats: fs.stat(), fs.statSync()
  9. Watching for file or directory changes:, fs.watchFile()

To use the fs module in your Node.js application, simply require it:

const fs = require('fs');

With the fs module, you can easily handle file system operations in your Node.js applications, making it a crucial component of the Node.js ecosystem.

http (HTTP)

In the interconnected world of the internet, the HTTP module is nothing short of a superhero. This module enables you to create servers and clients that communicate using the HTTP protocol. Whether you're building a simple web server or a full-blown RESTful API, the http module has the tools you need to craft your masterpiece.

Some key features of the http module include:

  1. Creating an HTTP server: The http.createServer() method allows you to create a new HTTP server instance that listens for incoming client requests and sends appropriate responses. You can define custom request handlers to process different types of requests, such as GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.
const http = require('http');

const server = http.createServer((req, res) => {
  res.writeHead(200, { 'Content-Type': 'text/plain' });
  res.end('Hello, World!\\n');

server.listen(3000, () => {
  console.log('Server running at <http://localhost:3000/>');
  1. Making HTTP requests: The http module also enables you to make HTTP requests to external servers using methods like http.get() and http.request(). This allows your Node.js applications to consume APIs, fetch data from remote sources, or interact with other services over the HTTP protocol.
const http = require('http');

http.get('<>', (res) => {
  let rawData = '';

  res.on('data', (chunk) => {
    rawData += chunk;

  res.on('end', () => {
    try {
      const parsedData = JSON.parse(rawData);
    } catch (e) {

The http module plays a crucial role in the Node.js ecosystem, enabling developers to create server-side applications that communicate effectively over the web using the widely adopted HTTP protocol.

url (URL)

The url module is your friendly neighborhood URL parser and formatter. It allows you to effortlessly parse, construct, and manipulate URLs, making it a breeze to work with web addresses. It offers a simple and convenient way to work with web addresses, making it easier to extract or modify various components of a URL, such as the protocol, hostname, query parameters, and more. The urlmodule is particularly useful when working with web applications, APIs, or any scenario where you need to handle URLs. With the url module by your side, you'll never get lost in the tangled web of URLs again!

Key features of the url module include:

  1. Parsing URLs: The url.parse() method (deprecated in Node.js v11.0.0) or the new URL() constructor from the WHATWG URL API can be used to parse a URL string into a URL object. This object contains properties representing various components of the URL, such as protocol, hostname, path, search, and hash.
const url = require('url');

const urlString = '<>';

const parsedUrl = url.parse(urlString);
  1. Constructing URLs: The url.format() method (deprecated in Node.js v11.0.0) or the URL class from the WHATWG URL API can be used to construct a URL string from a URL object or various components.
const url = require('url');

const urlObject = {
  protocol: 'https',
  hostname: '',
  port: 8080,
  pathname: '/sample',
  query: { param1: 'value1', param2: 'value2' },
  hash: '#section1'

const urlString = url.format(urlObject);

The url module is a valuable tool in the Node.js ecosystem, making it easier for developers to work with web addresses in a wide range of applications.

events (Event Emitter)

In the exciting realm of event-driven programming, the events module reigns supreme. It introduces the concept of event-driven programming in Node.js, allowing you to build responsive and interactive applications by defining, listening for, and reacting to custom events. This module provides the EventEmitter class, which allows you to create and manage custom events in your application. The EventEmitter makes it simple to build responsive and interactive applications, opening up a world of possibilities for your projects.

Key features of the events module include:

  1. Creating an EventEmitter: You can create a new EventEmitter by instantiating the EventEmitter class.
const EventEmitter = require('events');
const myEmitter = new EventEmitter();
  1. Defining and Emitting Events: With an EventEmitter instance, you can define custom events using the on() or addListener() methods, which register event listeners (callback functions) to be executed when the corresponding event is emitted.
myEmitter.on('myEvent', (data) => {
  console.log(`myEvent was triggered with data: ${data}`);

myEmitter.emit('myEvent', 'Hello, World!');
  1. Removing Event Listeners: The EventEmitter class provides methods for removing event listeners, such as off(), removeListener(), and removeAllListeners(), which help you manage and clean up event listeners as needed.
const myListener = (data) => {
  console.log(`myEvent was triggered with data: ${data}`);

myEmitter.on('myEvent', myListener);
myEmitter.emit('myEvent', 'Hello, World!');

myEmitter.removeListener('myEvent', myListener);
  1. Handling One-Time Events: If you need an event listener to be executed only once, you can use the once() method, which will automatically remove the listener after its first execution.
myEmitter.once('myEvent', () => {
  console.log('myEvent was triggered only once');


The events (EventEmitter) module is a powerful tool in the Node.js ecosystem, allowing developers to build applications that respond to custom events and create dynamic, event-driven architectures.

util (Utilities)

The util module is the Swiss Army knife of the Node.js world. It's packed with a variety of utility functions, from deprecating functions to inspecting objects. The util module is like a trusty sidekick, always ready to lend a hand when you need it most. The module contains a diverse set of tools that can assist you with tasks such as deprecating functions, inspecting objects, formatting strings, and more. Although the util module may not be as widely used as some other core modules, it offers valuable utilities that can simplify certain tasks and improve code quality.

Some key features of the util module include:

  1. util.promisify(): This function allows you to convert a callback-based function into a function that returns a promise. This is useful when working with asynchronous code, as it enables you to use async/await with functions that were originally designed for callbacks.
  2. util.inspect(): This function returns a string representation of an object, providing useful details about its properties and values. It's helpful for debugging purposes, as it allows you to easily examine the contents of objects in a human-readable format.
  3. util.format(): This function is a versatile string formatting tool that works similarly to printf() in C. It allows you to create formatted strings by providing placeholders and corresponding values.
  4. util.deprecate(): This function is useful when you need to mark a function as deprecated. It wraps the original function, emitting a warning when the deprecated function is called, which can help inform users about changes in your API or library.

path (Path)

In the land of file paths, the path module is the ultimate pathfinder. It provides a collection of methods to effortlessly manipulate file and directory paths, ensuring cross-platform compatibility. The path module simplifies various tasks, such as joining, resolving, normalizing, and parsing file paths, which can be particularly useful when working with file system operations or handling project directories.

Other Modules

Node.js doesn't stop there. It offers a plethora of other core modules, such as 'os' for operating system-specific information, 'crypto' for cryptography functionality, and 'stream' for working with streaming data, just to name a few. These modules unlock a treasure trove of capabilities, empowering you to build powerful and versatile applications.


Node.js's core modules are the building blocks of modern web applications, providing essential functionality and enabling developers to focus on crafting amazing user experiences. Whether you're building a simple script or an advanced web application, understanding and leveraging Node.js core modules will take your projects to new heights.

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