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Comprehension in Python

Module - 5 Comprehensions in Python
Comprehension in Python

Overview:

Comprehensions are a powerful and concise way to create and manipulate lists ūüďÉ, sets ūüĒĘ, and dictionaries ūüďĎ. In this blog post, we'll explore ūüĒć what comprehensions are, how they work, and how to use them effectively in your Python code.

Python Comprehensions-min.png

What are Comprehensions?

Python, comprehension is a concise way to create a new list, set, or dictionary based on an existing iterable object. Comprehensions are more concise and readable than traditional looping constructs such as for and while loops, and they can often be more efficient as well.

There are three types of comprehension in Python:

  • List comprehensions
  • Set comprehensions
  • Dictionary comprehensions

List Comprehensions

List comprehensions are utilized to form a new list based on an existing iterable object, such as a list or a range. Here's an illustration of a basic list comprehension that makes a new list of squared values:


squares = [x**2 for x in range(10)]

In this case, we're employing a for loop to repeat over the range from 9, and we're utilizing the expression x**2 to produce a new value for each iteration. The resulting list contains the squared values from 0 to 81.

List comprehensions can also include conditional statements to filter the values contained in the new list. Here's an example that creates a new list of even numbers:

evens = [x for x in range(10) if x % 2 == 0]

In this example, we're using the if statement to only include even values (i.e., values with a remainder of 0 when divided by 2). The resulting list contains even numbers from 0 to 8.

Set Comprehensions

Set comprehensions are similar to list comprehensions, but they're used to create a new set based on an existing iterable object. Here's an example of a simple set comprehension that makes a new set of unique values:


unique = {x % 3 for x in range(10)}

In this example, we're using the expression x % 3 to generate a new value for each iteration, and the resulting set contains unique values from 0 to 2. Set comprehensions can also include conditional statements to filter the values contained in the new set, just like list comprehensions.

Dictionary Comprehensions

Dictionary comprehensions create a new dictionary based on an existing iterable object. Here's an example of a simple dictionary comprehension that makes a new dictionary of key-value pairs:


squares = {x: x**2 for x in range(10)}

In this example, we're using the expression x**2 to generate a new value for each iteration and the value of x as the key for each key-value pair. The resulting dictionary contains the squared values from 0 to 81, with the keys being the corresponding integers.

Dictionary comprehensions can also include conditional statements to filter the key-value pairs included in the new dictionary.

Benefits of Comprehensions

The main benefits of using comprehensions in your Python code are:

  1. Conciseness: Comprehensions allow you to write more concise code and are easier to read than traditional looping constructs.
  2. Readability: Comprehensions are often more readable than traditional looping constructs because they clearly express the intent of the code in a single line.
  3. Efficiency: Comprehensions are often more efficient than traditional looping constructs because they use the underlying iterator protocol and avoid creating unnecessary intermediate objects.
  4. Flexibility: Comprehensions can be used with any iterable object, including lists, tuples, sets, and dictionaries, making them a versatile tool for data manipulation in Python.

Conclusion

Python comprehensions are a capable and brief way to form and manipulate lists, sets, and dictionaries. They're simple to examine and write, and they can often be more proficient than traditional looping constructs . Utilizing comprehensions in your Python code will make your code briefer, more lucid , and more productive.

Key Takeaways

  • Comprehensions are a brief way to make and manipulate lists, sets, and dictionaries in Python.
  • There are three types of comprehensions: list, set, and dictionary comprehensions.
  • They are more brief and effective than conventional looping constructs and can incorporate conditional statements to channel the values or key-value pairs in the new object.
  • List comprehensions make a new list, set comprehensions make a new set, and dictionary comprehensions make a new dictionary.

Quiz:

  1. Which of the following is not a type of comprehension in Python?
    1. List comprehension 
    2. Tuple comprehension 
    3. Set comprehension  
    4. Dictionary comprehension

Answer:b. Tuple comprehension.

  1. What are comprehensions in Python?
    1. A way to create and manipulate lists, sets, and dictionaries
    2. A way to write loops in a concise and readable way
    3. A way to work with iterable objects
    4. All of the above

Answer: d. All of the above

  1. What are the three types of comprehensions in Python?
    1. For, while, and do-while
    2. If-else, switch-case, and try-except
    3. List, set, and dictionary
    4. Function, class, and module

Answer: c. List, set, and dictionary

  1. How are conditional statements used in list comprehensions?
    1. To specify the starting value of the iterable object
    2. To generate a new value for each iteration
    3. To filter the values that are included in the new list
    4. To specify the length of the iterable object

Answer: c. To filter the values that are included in the new list

  1. What is the distinction between a list comprehension and a set comprehension?
    1. List comprehensions are utilized to form new lists, while set comprehensions are utilized to make new sets.
    2. List comprehensions are more productive than set comprehensions.
    3. Set comprehensions can only incorporate conditional statements, whereas list comprehensions can include both expressions and conditional statements.
    4. There's no contrast between a list comprehension and a set comprehension.

Answer: a. List comprehensions are used to create new lists, while set comprehensions are used to create new sets.

  1. How are dictionary comprehensions used to create a new dictionary?
    1. By specifying the keys and values separately using the zip() function
    2. By using a for loop to iterate over the iterable object and generate key-value pairs
    3. By using an expression to generate the values and specifying the keys using the iterable object
    4. By using conditional statements to filter the key-value pairs that are included in the new dictionary

Answer: c. By using an expression to generate the values and specifying the keys using the iterable object

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