Types of SQL DataBases

SQL databases are database management systems (DBMS) designed to store and manage information in a relational database structure. The most popular type of database is the Structured Query Language (SQL) database, which stores and retrieves data from tables.  These databases are often used to store large amounts of information and are highly scalable.

Types of Databases

A few types of Databases which we will discuss today are:

  1. Hierarchical
  2. Network
  3. Object Oriented
  4. Relational
  5. NoSQL

Hierarchical Database Management System (HDMS)

  •  A hierarchical database is like a tree structure, where each piece of data has a parent and children, similar to an organization chart or family tree. Data is organized into different levels, with the top level containing common data and the lower levels containing more specific information.
  • In a hierarchical database, data is organized into diverse levels. Each level has its type of information, with the top level containing common data and the lower levels containing more particular data.
  •  Hierarchical databases are great for storing and retrieving data that is organized in a particular way. But, they can be difficult to alter and not great for managing complicated data relationships. Also, they are constrained by their structure and can be difficult to work with when there is a lot of data.
  •  Some examples of hierarchical databases include IMS (Information Management System) from IBM and Windows Registry in the Microsoft Windows operating system.

 Did You Know? 

Hierarchical databases were first utilized in the 1960s and 1970s to overseeing huge sums of information in mainframe computers. They are still utilized nowadays in some businesses, such as fabricating and coordinating, where information is organized in various leveled structures.

Network Databases Management System (NDMS)

  • A network database is a type of database that allows records to have many-to-many relationships with other records. This means a record can have more than one parent or child and be linked to other records in multiple ways. It's like a hierarchical database but more flexible.
  • A network database is like a map where each location is connected to other locations. The locations are the records, and the connections between them are the relationships. This type of database can hold more complicated relationships between data than a hierarchical database, which makes it more flexible and powerful.
  • Network databases are better than hierarchical databases in some ways because they are more flexible when it comes to showing how data is related to each other. They also work faster when retrieving data that has complex relationships. But they are harder to create and take care of, and you need to be an expert to work with them.
  • Some examples of network databases include CODASYL DBTG (Conference on Data Systems Languages Data Base Task Group) and Integrated Data Store (IDS).

Did You Know? 

Network databases were first introduced in the 1960s and 1970s and were used in some large-scale applications, such as airline reservation systems and banking systems. However, they are less commonly used today than other types of databases, such as relational or NoSQL databases.

Object-oriented Database Management Systems (OODBMS)

  • An object-oriented database is a software that spares and takes care of information as objects, not tables.
  • Object-oriented databases utilize object-oriented programming concepts to store and retrieve complex data structures characteristically and instinctively.
  • Data is put away as objects in an object-oriented database. Objects are occasions of classes that define the structure and behavior of the information. Each object has its identity, attributes, and methods and can be related to other objects through relationships.
  • Object-oriented databases are distinctive from other sorts of databases. They are superior since they can work with more complex data structures and more effortlessly with object-oriented programming languages.
  • In any case, NoSQL databases can be more difficult to make and keep up with than other databases, requiring particular oversight abilities.
  • Examples of object-oriented databases include ObjectStore, Versant Object Database, and GemStone/S.

 Did You Know?

Object-oriented databases were first introduced in the 1980s and used in some scientific and engineering applications, such as computer-aided design and simulation. Today, they are less commonly used than other types of databases, such as relational or NoSQL databases. However, they are still used in some specialized applications involving complex data structures.

Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS)

  • A relational database  could be an instrument that stores information in tables  and appears how they are related to each other .
  • In a database, information is organized into tables . Each table is utilized to store a different type of thing , like clients , orders , or items .
  • Each table has columns  that represent the different characteristics of the thing, and each row  represents one individual illustration of that thing.
  • Tables  are related through primary  and foreign  keys. An essential key is a unique identifier for each row, whereas a foreign key may be a column that alludes to the essential key of another table.

This allows you to connect and mix data from multiple tables, making it easier to ask complex questions and generate reports.  Relational databases have several advantages over other types of databases, such as strong data consistency and integrity, a well-defined data structure, and a standardized language (SQL) for querying and manipulating information.  However, they may not be as scalable and flexible as other database types, such as NoSQL databases, and may require more planning and design upfront.  Some examples of relational databases include Oracle Database, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, and PostgreSQL.

 Did You Know?

Relational databases were first presented in the 1970s and have become the foremost broadly utilized database management system. They are utilized in a wide extend of applications, counting funds, healthcare, e-commerce, and more.

NoSQL Database Management Systems (NDBMS)

  •  NoSQL is a database management system designed for handling expansive volumes of unstructured information in an adaptable and adaptable way.
  • There are a few sorts of NoSQL databases, including  document-based,  key-value,  column-family, and  chart databases. Each sort is optimized for diverse information structures and utilizes cases.
  •  Document-based databases, like MongoDB, store information as settled and hierarchically structured documents.  Key-value databases, like Amazon DynamoDB, store information as interesting key-value pairs.
  •  Column-family databases, like Apache Cassandra, gather related information columns together.  Graph databases, like Neo4j, store data as nodes and edges, allowing for efficient querying and analysis of complex relationships.
  • NoSQL databases are used in a wide range of applications, such as big data, e-commerce, social media, and gaming. They are well-suited for handling large volumes of unstructured data, like sensor data and log files.
  • NoSQL databases have advantages over relational databases, like greater flexibility and scalability, faster performance for specific queries, and the ability to handle unstructured data.
  • However, they can also have disadvantages, like a lack of standardization, higher complexity in managing data, and no support for ACID transactions.
  • Overall, NoSQL databases are valuable for storing and managing large volumes of complex data in a different way than relational databases.

Why SQL is used often than NoSQL?

  • Unlike other databases like NoSQL databases that utilize alternative data models and query languages, SQL databases follow a conventional relational model with rows and columns.
  •  This unthinkable structure permits information to be coherently organized and connected between tables utilizing key identifiers.
  •  The SQL language gives an effective mechanism for querying and manipulating this data precisely and accurately.
  •  Due to their ability to support tremendous sums of information, solid consistency and integrity, and transactional control, SQL databases are commonly utilized for mission-critical enterprise applications.
  •  They stay a prevalent choice for e-commerce stages, client relationship administration frameworks, content management frameworks, and a wide range of other commerce computer program arrangements that require both versatility and unwavering quality.
  • In spite of the fact that more up-to-date database technologies have emerged over a long time, SQL databases still speak to the prevailing approach for information capacity and administration in numerous organizations and proceed to be a foundational innovation for data-driven applications.


We learned different types of SQL databases and thoroughly understood each type. We also got to know how each type can be used in various applications and how to best apply the knowledge we gained to work.

Key takeaways

  • This lesson gives an outline of diverse sorts of SQL databases, including hierarchical, network, object-oriented, relational, and NoSQL databases.
  • Each sort is depicted in detail, including its highlights, points of interest, and disadvantages.
  • The lesson also explains why SQL databases are often utilized over NoSQL databases and conclude with a rundown of the most points.
  • Relational databases are the foremost commonly utilized databases and utilize SQL for characterizing and controlling information.
  • NoSQL databases are outlined for high scalability and are best suited for unstructured data.


1. What is a hierarchical database? 

  1. A database where records can have many-to-many relationships with other records. 
  2. A database where data is organized like a tree structure. 
  3. A database where data is stored as objects. 
  4. A database where data is organized in a specific way.

Answer: b) A database where data is organized like a tree structure.

2. Which type of database is more flexible in showing how data is related to each other than a hierarchical database? 

  1. Network database 
  2. Object-oriented database 
  3. Relational database 
  4. NoSQL database

Answer: a) Network database

3. Which type of database is the most popular type of database? 

  1. Hierarchical database 
  2. Network database 
  3. Relational database 
  4. Object-oriented database

Answer: c) Relational database

4. Which type of database is designed to handle unstructured and semi-structured data? 

  1. Hierarchical database 
  2. Network database 
  3. Relational database 
  4. NoSQL database

Answer: d) NoSQL database

5. Which type of database was first used in the 1960s and 1970s to manage large amounts of data in mainframe computers and is still used today in some industries? 

  1. Hierarchical database 
  2. Network database 
  3. Relational database 
  4. Object-oriented database

Answer: a) Hierarchical database

Module 1: Getting started with SQLTypes of SQL DataBases

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