What is PostGreSQL?


PostgreSQL is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) utilized for web applications and putting away huge sums of information. It underpins both SQL query language and object-relational data models, giving clients information keenness, replication, and versatility. PostgreSQL capacities incorporate data manipulation, such as triggers, stored procedures, window functions, and user-defined functions. It is accessible for different stages, including Linux, Windows, MacOS, and Solaris.

What is PostgreSQL and its History?

PostgreSQL may be a powerful, open-source object-relational database framework that many companies use in an assortment of businesses. It could be a well-known choice for web applications, information warehousing, and information investigation. For example, a budgetary administration company may utilize PostgreSQL to store and prepare its client information. The database may be utilized for putting away client account data, like names, addresses, and contact data. It may also store monetary information like exchanges, accounts, and equalizations. The PostgreSQL database may be scaled up as commerce develops to oblige more data. The database can be utilized to run analytics and create reports for client benefits, promotions, and other offices.

It was initially created at the University of California, Berkeley, in the 1980s as a successor to the Ingres database management system.

PostgreSQL, already known as Postgres, was first created by a group of computer researchers driven by Michael Stonebraker. It was made as a research project to test the thoughts of the modern SQL language standard and to illustrate the points of interest in utilizing an object-relational database demonstrate.

The project was released as open-source software in 1996, and since then, it has been kept up and created by an expansive community of volunteers and supporters. Nowadays, PostgreSQL is one of the most progressed and broadly utilized open-source social database frameworks, known for its unwavering quality, execution, and versatility.

Installing PostgreSQL

To install PostgreSQL on a Windows machine, you must first download the PostgreSQL installer from the PostgreSQL website. Once the installer has been downloaded, open it and follow the instructions on the installation screens. The installation process typically includes the following steps:

  1. Choose the directory where PostgreSQL will be installed.
  2. Choose the version of PostgreSQL that you want to install.
  3. Select the components that you want to install.
  4. Configure the database cluster.
  5. Create a superuser account.
  6. Start the PostgreSQL service. Once the installation is complete, you can start using PostgreSQL.

Preferences of Utilizing PostgreSQL

  1. Reliability: PostgreSQL is a profoundly solid open-source database framework due to its vigor, steadiness, and progressed highlights. It is planned to handle complex information sets and guarantee the most elevated information judgment and consistency levels.
  2. Ease of Use: PostgreSQL is simple to introduce and design and stuffed with highlights that make it simpler to utilize than other database frameworks. It, too, has comprehensive documentation, instructional exercises, and bolster forums.
  3. Adaptability: PostgreSQL is profoundly adaptable and can be used to make various applications. It underpins an assortment of programming languages, including Java, PHP, and Python, and can be expanded with an assortment of expansions and plugins.
  4. Scalability: PostgreSQL is profoundly scalable and can effortlessly be adjusted to meet the needs of any estimated organization. It can be utilized for both little and expansive applications.
  5. Cost: PostgreSQL is free and open-source, making it an appealing alternative for organizations on a budget. Moreover, it is exceedingly extensible and can be adjusted to fit the requirements of any organization.
  6. Security: Postgres comes with an effective security framework that's outlined to ensure information from unapproved access. It bolsters authentication, encryption, and other security highlights to ensure data remains secure.

Working with PostgreSQL Data Types

  • When working with PostgreSQL data types, getting the different types of data and how they can be utilized in your database is critical.
  • The foremost commonly utilized data types are integers, strings, booleans, dates, and timestamps.
  • It is additionally important to understand the contrasts between data types and how to utilize them correctly.
  • For case, when managing numeric data, it is critical to utilize the proper data type, such as integers for entire numbers and floats for decimal values.
  • When managing text data, strings ought to be utilized; for date and time information, the date and timestamp information sorts ought to be utilized.
  • Also, PostgreSQL has specialized data types, such as arrays, JSON, and UUIDs, which should be utilized depending on the stored information.

Querying Data with SQL

  • You will need to use the SQL language to query data using PostgreSQL. SQL is a declarative language that allows you to specify the desired data and how it should be retrieved. PostgreSQL supports a wide variety of SQL commands, which can be used to construct complex queries.
  • The most common SQL command is the SELECT statement, which is used to retrieve data from a table. The SELECT statement can be used to retrieve specific columns and rows and filter and sort the data.
  • It can also be used to join multiple tables and return results from multiple tables in a single query. Other useful commands include INSERT, which is used to add new rows to a table, UPDATE, which is used to modify existing rows, and DELETE, which is used to delete rows from a table.
  • PostgreSQL also provides a variety of functions that can be used to perform calculations on data, such as SUM and AVERAGE. Users can also create their own custom functions using the CREATE FUNCTION command.
  • PostgreSQL also supports a wide variety of data types, including integers, strings, dates, and more. This allows users to store and manipulate data of any type.
  • By learning the basics of SQL and PostgreSQL, you can start to query and manipulate data in various ways. You can become an expert at querying data with PostgreSQL with a little practice.

PostgreSQL Functions

  • PostgreSQL functions are pieces of code written in the PostgreSQL language that can be used to perform complex operations on database tables.
  • PostgreSQL functions can be used to manipulate data, perform calculations, or create custom database objects.
  • They can also be used to create stored procedures, triggers, and views. PostgreSQL functions are database objects stored in the database and invoked by other database objects.

Backup and Restore Strategies

  1. Full Backup: This type of backup involves a complete database backup, including all data and configuration files. This is usually done as a one-time backup and is used to restore the entire database in case of data loss or corruption.
  2. Incremental Backup: This type of backup involves taking periodic backups of only the data that has changed since the last backup. This strategy is useful for saving disk space and reducing backup times.
  3. Point-in-time Recovery: This type of backup involves taking a snapshot of the database at a specific point in time. This is useful for recovering from user errors or other data corruption.
  4. Scripted Backup: This type of backup involves creating a script that can be used to automate the backup process. This is useful for automating the backup process and making sure it is completed on a regular basis.
  5. Log Shipping: This is a strategy that involves copying the transaction log files from one server to another on a regular basis. This is useful for recovering from data loss or corruption and providing a way to replicate data between multiple databases.

PostgreSQL Performance Tuning

  1. Monitor Performance: To detect potential performance issues, monitor your PostgreSQL performance regularly with tools like pg_stat_activity and pg_stat_statements.
  2. Tune PostgreSQL Configuration: Tune PostgreSQL configuration parameters like shared_buffers, work_mem, max_connections, effective_cache_size, and checkpoint_segments to optimize performance. Introduction to PostgreSQL 6
  3. Use Appropriate Data Types: Use appropriate data types for each column to improve performance and reduce disk space.
  4. Index Appropriately: Create appropriate indexes on columns used in WHERE and JOIN clauses to reduce the cost of frequent operations.
  5. Use Explain Plan: Use the EXPLAIN command to analyze the query execution plan and identify any potential performance issues.
  6. Vacuum Regularly: Regularly vacuum and analyze the table to improve performance.
  7. Partition Tables: Partition large tables into smaller ones to improve query performance.
  8. Set Appropriate WAL Parameters: Set appropriate WAL parameters to reduce disk I/O and improve transaction throughput.
  9. Use Connection Pooling: Use connection pooling to reduce the cost of establishing and closing database connections.


This lesson covers the basics of SQL, the PostgreSQL architecture, and how to create and manage databases. From this lesson, you can gain an understanding of the fundamentals of SQL, such as data types, tables, and functions. We also learned how to use PostgreSQL to query, update, and delete data.

Key takeaways

  1. PostgreSQL may be a well-known open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) utilized to store and oversee structured information.
  2. Developed at the University of California, Berkeley, in the 1980s as a successor to the Ingres database management system, PostgreSQL underpins both SQL query language and object-relational data model.
  3. It has a few capacities, such as information manipulation, triggers, put away procedures, window functions, and user-defined functions, and is accessible for numerous stages, counting Linux, Windows, MacOS, and Solaris.
  4. PostgreSQL is known for its unwavering quality, execution, versatility, and adaptability. It is simple to utilize and has broad documentation, instructional exercises, and bolster gatherings.
  5. PostgreSQL underpins a wide assortment of information types, including integers, strings, booleans, dates, and timestamps, and it has specialized data types, such as arrays, JSON, and UUIDs.
  6. To query data utilizing PostgreSQL, you need to utilize SQL, a declarative language utilized to indicate the required information and how it ought to be recovered.
  7. PostgreSQL bolsters a wide assortment of SQL commands and capacities that can be utilized to develop complex inquiries and perform calculations on the information.


1. What is PostgreSQL? 

  1. A file storage system 
  2. An object-oriented programming language 
  3. A relational database management system 
  4. A web framework

Answer: c) A relational database management system

2. When was PostgreSQL first released as open-source software? 

  1. 1980s 
  2. 1996 
  3. 2000s 
  4. 2010s

Answer: b) 1996

3. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using PostgreSQL? 

  1. Reliability 
  2. Ease of use 
  3.  Cost-effectiveness 
  4. Limited scalability

Answer: d) Limited scalability

4. Which command is used to add new rows to a table in PostgreSQL? 

  1. INSERT 
  2. UPDATE 
  3. DELETE 

Answer: a) INSERT

5. What is SQL? 

  1.  A programming language 
  2. A database management system 
  3. A query language for databases 
  4. A file format

Answer: c) A query language for databases

Module 2: Creating and Managing Databases in PostgresWhat is PostGreSQL?

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