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Objects in Python

Overview

Python is an object-oriented programming language that places a strong emphasis on objects. In Python, each type of Object—variable, function, list, tuple, dictionary, set, etc.—is treated as an object. Each Object belongs to a certain class.

Introduction

Objects in Python are a way of bundling data and functionality together. A class is a blueprint for an object. It defines what information an object can contain and what methods it can execute 💻. An example of an object in Python is the list 📝. A list is a container that holds items 📁. Each item can be accessed using its index 🔢. We can add ⬆️, remove 🗑️, and update items in a list 📝. We can also loop through a list 🔁 and perform an action on each item.

Creating an object in Python

Objects are collections of related data and functionality that can be manipulated and utilized to make programs. In Python, an object is any data type that's not a primitive data type, such as integers, strings, floats, and booleans. Objects can be made using classes, which are special objects that define a set of attributes and methods that other objects can use within the program. An object can be made by instantiating a class, typically by calling the class constructor, which regularly takes a set of arguments that characterize the Object's attributes. Once the Object is created, its attributes and methods can be accessed and utilized to control the data.

Syntax:

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The above syntax is used to create an object of a particular class. The first line defines the class with a name, ClassName. The class body is defined within the braces. The last line creates an instance of the ClassName class, assigning it to the variable obj. The keyword "new" creates an instance of the class and calls the constructor.

Accessing Object's variables in Python

In Python, one common way to access the qualities and variables related to an object is by utilizing dot notation. For instance, if you have defined an object named "myObject" and that Object contains a variable called "myVariable" related to it, you'll be able to get to the value stored in that variable by typing "myObject.myVariable" into your Python code. Dot notation may be a simple and natural method for accessing the properties of objects in Python. By chaining together the name of the protest and the names of its attributes separated by periods, you'll effectively investigate the data inside any object. For illustration, assume you have created a Python object representing a dog. You've given it traits like "name", "age", "breed", and "color". To see the dog's name, you'd type "myDog.name ". To see its age, you would type "myDog.age", and so on. Using dot notation allows you to clearly and efficiently look up the attributes of any object in your Python program.

Example:

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This code creates a class called Student with three variables: name, age, and grade. The init method initializes the variables to the values specified in the parameters. We then create an object called student1 and assign it the values "John", 20, and "A".

To access the Object's variables, we use the dot notation, student1.name, student1.age, and student1.grade. We then print out the values of the variables.

Accessing Object's functions in Python

In the Python programming language, you can access the methods and functions of an object by utilizing the dot operator, which is simply a period (.). For instance, if you have defined an object called "myObject" within your Python code, you can invoke its methods and functions by typing myObject.functionName(), where "functionName" is the name of the specific method or function you wish to call on that Object.

To elaborate further, objects in Python often represent real-world entities or abstract concepts within your program. They contain data in the shape of variables and attributes and blocks of code called methods that work on that information. The dot operator permits you to specify exactly which object you're inquisitive about by "chaining" it with the method or attribute you need to access, thereby unambiguously characterizing the scope of your command.

For illustration, assume you have defined an object called "Person" to represent individuals inside your code. You might allow traits like "name", "age", and "occupation", as well as strategies such as "talk()" to print a message from that person. You may get to the "name" attribute of a particular Person object called "john" by typing "john.name". You could call the "speak()" method of the same Object by writing "john.speak()". The dot operator lets you directly retrieve data from or invoke actions on a precise object in a straightforward, readable syntax.

Example:

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This code creates an object named "myObject" of the class "MyClass" and then accesses a function of the Object named "myFunction" by using the dot operator.

Modifying Object's properties in Python

Objects in Python are mutable, meaning their properties can be modified after they are created. This is done by accessing the Object's properties and changing their values. For example, if an object has a property called "name", it can be changed by accessing the Object's name property and setting it to a different value. New properties can also be added to an object using the same process.

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This code creates a dictionary object called myObj, which contains a single key-value pair ("Hello": "World"). The code then modifies the value of the "Hello" key to be "Python" instead of "World". Finally, the code prints the modified value of the "Hello" key to the console.

Deleting Object's properties in Python

You'll erase an object's properties in Python by utilizing the del statement. This statement erases the named references to the Object's properties but not the properties themselves. It is vital to note that the del statement only erases the reference to the property, not the real property itself. This implies that the Object's properties still exist, but they are not accessible through the Object's name. Since the properties still exist, they can be accessed by other objects that have references to them.

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The code above uses the del statement to remove the "age" property from the myObject Object. After executing the del statement, the myObject Object no longer contains the "age" property. However, the property still exists and can be accessed by other objects referencing it. The output of the code is {"name": "John"}, indicating that the "age" property is no longer included in the Object.

Deleting an Object in Python

In Python, objects can be erased utilizing the del statement. The del statement is used to erase objects, such as variables, lists, dictionaries, and classes, that are now not required.

Example:

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The code above deletes the dictionary named mydict. The del statement is used to delete an object, in this case, the dictionary. Once the del statement has been executed, the dictionary no longer exists and cannot be accessed.

Conclusion

Python is an object-oriented programming language in which each data type, such as variables, lists, tuples, dictionaries, sets, etc., is treated as an object belonging to a certain class. Objects are made utilizing classes, which are blueprints for the Object, characterizing what data it can contain and what methods it can execute. The qualities and methods of an object are accessed utilizing dot notation, where the name of the Object and its attributes are separated by periods. This allows the exploration of information within any object.

Key takeaways

  1. Objects in Python are collections of data and code that can be used to store and manipulate data .
  2. Objects in Python are created using classes, which are like templates that define the characteristics and behavior of objects.
  3. Objects can contain data attributes and methods, which are utilized to control the data and perform errands .
  4. Objects can be passed to functions and other objects as parameters, permitting more complex operations.
  5. Python bolsters polymorphism, which permits objects to be treated unexpectedly depending on the context in which they are utilized.

Quiz

  1. What type of object is a list? 
    1. Dictionary 
    2. Tuple 
    3. String  
    4. List

Answer: d. List

  1. What is a Python object?  
    1. A set of data
    2. A set of instructions
    3. A collection of variables
    4. A collection of methods

Answer: d. A collection of methods

  1. What kind of data type is an object? 
    1. Numeric
    2. Boolean
    3. String
    4. Object

Answer:d. Object

  1. What is the purpose of the init() method in a Python class? 
    1. To create an object
    2. To initialize variables
    3. To execute instructions
    4. To assign values

Answer:b. To initialize variables

  1. How is an object created in Python? 
    1. By calling a method
    2. By declaring a variable
    3. By assigning a value
    4. By instantiating a class

Answer:d. By instantiating a class

Module 7: OOPs in PythonObjects in Python

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